The Assemblies in Sumerian and Dravidian

மரபு விக்கி இருந்து

தாவிச் செல்ல: வழிசெலுத்தல், தேடுக

Dr K.Loganathan , dec 2010

I begin this series to provide additional evidences to show a cultural continuity along with linguistic between the Sumerians and Dravidians. While in the series on “Temple in Sumerian and Dravidian” I focused upon various aspects of Temple Culture or Agamism, now I want to focus upon various assemblies both political and social where there are interesting continuities both linguistic and cultural between the Sumerians and Dravidians. It appears that despite the Sumerian civilization being largely monarchical, a collection of city states ruled by a king and where Kingship was thought to have descended from the heaven, it was essentially democratic where we find many social institutions for public debates and collective decisions. The power of the king was not absolute- it was subject to the control and regulation of the general public as well.

The Assemblies in Sumerian and Dravidian-1

In the course of discussing the various terms for Assemblies, we shall discover this feature of the Sumerian society still retained by the Dravidians. We can say that democracy as such is inherent to the Sumerians as it is to the Dravidians and Indians as a whole.

Su, sa-ba, ab-be and Ta. Sabai, avai

From Suruppak’s NeRi ( c. 3000 BC) we have the following occurrences of some of these words where I also give my own translations.

Su. ab-be: Ta.avai

47. u-nu-gar-ra na-ab-be-e ( Do not cheat?)

Ta. uu naa kaalla naa abaiyee ( Do not speak that which does not stand firm i.e. untruths)

ஊ நா கால்ல நா அவையே

ab-be> Ta. To speak? From this we have Ta.avai: an assembly where exchanges are made.


55. as azi na-ab-bal-e su-us im-si-nigin ( Do not curse with violence, it will turn around your hands )

Ta. aasi azi naa abballee suur-us iim sey nikkin

aasi azi: words that would call for destruction and hence curses. Ab-bal> Ta/ avalam: distress, curse? Also alar, aambal: rumours

ஆசி அழி நா அவல்லே சூர்-உஸ் ஈயிம் செய் நிக்கின்?

sa-ba Ta. sabai

58. ur.tuku na-an-bad-e lu-bi sa-ba-e-re eb-kur ( Do not drive away a debtor, that man may turn hostile against you)

Ta. Or.tuku nAan paddee uLubi sabaiyiree iv kuuR.u ( Do not quarel with the strong people, they will complain in assembly)

ஓர் தொகு நாஅன் பட்டே உளுபி சபையிரே இவ் கூறு

bad> Ta. Paddi: to argue as in Paddi Manram: an assembly for debating. Sa-ba-e-re> Ta. Sabaiyilee: here e-re> il-ee where ‘il’ is a locative case marker and ‘ee’ a particle of emphasis(TeeRRa eekaaram)

For ‘kur ‘ as Ta. kuuRu” to tell, complain etc, we have

42. inim nam-ku-ku-re-e-en inim-zu gar-ra-am ( Do not swear , your word is fixed)

Ta. enam naam kuRkuuReeyiyen inim-ju kaalla aam

Here is another line also from Suruppak’s NeRi with sa-ba:

19. su-du-a nam-mu-un-tum lu-bi sa-ba-e-dab-be (Do not gurantee 9for someone) tht man will have a hold on you.

Ta. Suutu-a naam mun tuuvum uLubi sabaiyee tabbee ( Do not gamble, someone will announce it is the assembly)

Here dabbe> Ta, tabbee : to publicise as in Tabbu-adittal

I believe that from the archaic form of “sa-ba ‘ ( to discuss, converse, exchange words etc and hence an assembly ) we have the words ab-be, ib-be , abbal etc with the deletion of the initial ‘s-“ and which is NOT uncommon in the Dravidian languages. And these can be related to words such as Ta. avai ( Sk shaba, Ta. sabai : assembly) Ta. aambal (< ab-bal); strong rumour and so forth. Ta. imir, imiz ( to hum etc.) Ta. iyambu ( to tell) where Ta. iyam also means musical instruments which may be another line of differentiation and development.

Related to these we have Su. eme: speech, language such as eme-gir ( written language?) eme-sal ( eme-sol: spoken language?) and eme-ku ( emekoo) divine language etc.

Here we can see ib-e ib-be becoming eme or the other way around

Also the word sa-ba occurs in the name of Nisaba ( also Nidaba), an ancient name for Saraswati. This name and its variant shows that sa-ba is actually sha-ba for it is only ‘sh’ that changes to ‘d’ (Su. kes-da > Ta. kaddu , Ta. nashdam > naddam etc) Thus Ni-sha-ba means the Deity ( Nin) of language or speech ( sha-ba) From a metathesis we can have ba-sha, Ta. paashai, paadai etc and Sk baasha

So my guess is : from the root sha-ba we have ab-be, ib-be, ab-bal etc and perhaps later eme, ba-sha and so forth. But the important point is the existence of Sabaa, the Ur ManRam, the village assembly that exists now as Panchayat where the people can take their complaints and seek out amicable settlements. It shows that the towns and villages had the political power to effect judgement through such institutions as Sabaa, a word that continue to fumction in almost the sense even now.

To continue-1

The Assemblies in Sumerian and Dravidian-2

The Sumerian Sag-gam mah (Great CaGkam) in Kumari

Below some very historically interesting lines where both Kumari and CaGkam are mentioned as also mentioned in some ancient Tamil texts . Here I venture to give some of my own interpretations as well.

The Incantations are taken from the superb publication "Forerunners to Udug-Hul" by Markham J. Geller , and published by Franz Steiner Verlag Wiebaden GMBH, Stuttgart, 1985

The tablets used for reconstruction are said to belong to the Old Babylonian Period but the compositions themselves may actually belong to the period of the Third Ur Dynasty ( 2300 B.C. -- 2000 B.C)

215. ga-e gudu sag-gam-mah ju me-en ( I am the anointing (gudu)-priest , the knowledgeable sangamah)

216. ga-e lu asilal (ki) me-en ( I am the man of Asilal?)

217. ga-e ka-pirig [A-HA](ki) he-sikil-la he-ga-dadag-ga me-en ( I am the incantation priest of Ku'ar , who indeed cleansed , and also purified)

218. . gudu susbu (d)en-ki-ga me-en ( I am the anointing priest, the purification priest of Enki)

  • Ta. Gaayee koodu caGkam maa: cuu maan ( I am a ritual dancer ( koodu) who knows the rules established by the Great caGkam)

ங்ஆயே கோடு சங்கம் மா சூ மான்

  • Ta. Gaayee aacu-ilal maan ( I am the man from Asillal ( the place where there are no impurities)

ங்ஆயே ஆசு இலா மான்

  • Ta. Gaayee kaapiri Kumari (Kauri) ey sukilla, eyka taGtaGku maan ( I am the incantation priest of Kumari (Kauri), attained purity and also attained living long)

ங்ஆயே காபிரி குமரி எய் சுகில்ல எய்க தங்குதங்கு மான்

  • Ta. koodu coobu ENkiizkka maan ( I am the brilliant dancer of ENkiiz)\\

கோடு சோப ஏன்கீழ்க்க மான்

gudu Ta. koodu, kuudu , kudam? kuuttu

The Su. gudu which is given the meaning 'priest" may actually be a ritual dancer, and hence the Ta. koodu , meaning Ta. koodiyar, the dancer. From this might have also originated Ta. kuudal, the coming together , assembling as an congregation and which brings us to the Kuudal, an ancient and alternative name for Mathurai, the location of the Third CaGkam or Academy which is also a meaning of Kuudal. This may have evolved from this way : kuudu-il> kuudil> kuudal. There is also a word 'kudil" which is retained in Sk in the name Kaudil-ya, the Gotra of the famous author of Artta Sastra which is said to have been written in Tamil Nadu. This Kaudil-ya has also become KauNdiya, the gotra of ThirunjaanaSambantar and so forth.

The word 'kudam" meaning 'pot' is ruled out as it appears to be a description of a professional person here though elsewhere it does occur in this sense in some Sumerian texts.

sag-gam-mah : maa caGkam : the Great Assembly?

The identity of Su. mah with Ta/Sk maa, maha in both morphology and meaning is quite obvious. The word "sag-gam" cannot be 'priest" ( sangu?sanga) as 'gudu' that precedes it, already means that. Hence it should be linked with 'sa-ga =sag-a" , to conjoin, be together , be in love etc. as in the following line:


55. mi-be dam-a-ni-ta sa-ga na- an-da-ab-be (its woman no longer speaks of love with her husband)

  • Ta. mibee tam anitta saG-a naa aanida abaiyee ( " )

The sag-a here can also be (sexually) uniting, the Ta. caGkamam. Many words such as 'caki' 'cakan' meaning loved ones may be related to this.

Thus it appears to be that 'sag-gam-mah" is the Great CaGkam , here however an Assembly of priests or ritual dancers in which many issues were discussed and perhaps also refined and standardized. The author of the incantation mentions that he KNOWS ( ju, Ta. cuu, cuuz) which also reinforces the notion that sag-gam was in fact an Academy of a kind. Perhaps the Buddhist ' caGkam" as in "CaGkam caraNam kaccaami" was an evolute of this kind of assembly and which in later times became an academic institution of scholars , the Pulavar.

Ku'ar , Kumari.

This interpretation of 'sag-gam' is further reinforced by the mention of "Kumari" ( Ku'ar) which lends support to the historical notion that the First CaGkam was established in Kumari.

Geller gives evidences to read the sign [A-HA] as " Kumari" ( Ku'ar) on page 13 of the book mentioned above. I give below the whole of the relevant passage .


" The above hypothesis contradicts a theory by van Dijk, that since Ku'ar was a city known as "non-Sumerian speaking" as well as the city of Asalluhi, "Grossexorcist von Eridu', it is tempting to identify Ku'ar as the home of the non-canonical incantation in Subarian-Elamite languages. Van Dijk's arguments, however, are partially based upon a miscopied sign in CT 16 6:239-240 ( collated) which reads :

eridu (ki) ku'ar ( A.HA)(ki)-se mu-un-na-ri he-me-e-n

Ak. sa ina eri-du u ku-ma-ri re-hu-u ana-ku

The reading ku-ma-ri ( Kuwari? Ku'ar) is supported by ku-mar ( CT 51 105:21- 22).... "


It is interesting here that in Tamil, Kumari is also called Kauri, a parallel in meaning and morphology that is quite striking and thus pointing out also a historical continuity despite a shift in the geographical location

Note: This Kumari, which I will name Kumari II, is a name of recall of Kumari I, the original kumari , perhaps the Oasis of Lost Civilization of Jeffrey Rose as mentioned in:


There was a virtual explosion of settlement around the shoreline of the Gulf
in the Middle Holocene, coinciding with the final phase of marine incursion
into the basin. More than just the sheer number of sites that were
established within a single millennium (), the characteristics of these
sites have profound implications for social evolution in the Gulf Oasis. By
the time that indigenous groups became archaeologically visible during the
‘Ubaid 3 phase around 7500 cal BP, these communities had already undergone
complete Neolithic demographic transition and were, in fact, on the cusp of
the Urban Revolution. This is exemplified in the suite of features found at
‘Ubaid-related sites, including permanent stone structures, pottery, date
palm cultivation, animal husbandry, fishing, extensive trade networks, and
advanced boat-building.
Three millennia after the proposed (re)settlement of indigenous ‘Ubaid 3
groups along the northern shoreline of the Gulf, the region became known as
Sumeria and was populated by the world’s earliest literate civilization.
Albeit epiphenomenal, it is interesting to note that the oldest known
version of the ubiquitous Near Eastern flood myth, the “Eridu
(Jacobsen 1981), was written by the inhabitants of this region. The link
between flood mythology and marine incursion into the Arabo-Persian Gulf
basin has already been thoroughly explored by a number of authors (see Cooke
1987; Hamblin 1987; Kennett and Kennett 2006; Lambeck 1996; Sanford 2006;
Teller et al. 2000) and does not require any further elucidation.


The language of the Ubaid communities is clearly Archaic Tamil as I have already shown. Suruppaks NeRi(nari) is a text recovered from that site

To continue-2

The Assemblies in Sumerian and Dravidian-3

e-dub-ba : The School for Children. Ta. il tubbu (. Ta. potiyil?)

It is quite well known that the Sumerians were literate by virtue of the invention and perfection of the cuneiform script. What is quite amazing is the widespread presence of schools for children and in which they were taught the art of writing and reading. There are many details available on this topic including what went on inside the schools as many 'essays' composed by the children learning to write have been recovered in the form of clay tablets just as written by the children.

The school was called edub-ba I,.e Ta. il tubbu , the tablet(tubbu) house (il) and in the following lines from Sulgi;s Hymn B, that I call Mutariibiyam there is a mention of it.

11. lugal-e lugal-a-ri-a nin-e-tu-ud-me-en
I, the king of royal descent, whom a princess bore

Ta. uLukaLLee ulukaL aariya ninnee todda maan

உளுகள்ளே உளுகள் ஆரிய நின்னே தொட்ட மான்

12 Sul-gi-me-en dumu-gi sa-zi-ta nam-dug-tar-ra-me-en
I, Sulgi, the legitimate prince, was allotted a good destiny, right from the faithful heart

Ta. Cuulgi maan tamukii caaycitta tungka tarunam maan

சூழ்கி மான் தமுசி சாய்சித்த துங்க தருனம் மான்

13. tur-ra-mu-de e-dub-ba-a-a-am
Since my (very) youth I belonged to the edubba

Ta. tur-ra mutee il tubbaia aa aam

துர்-அ முதே இல் துப்பைய ஆ ஆம்

Let us consider these lines in some details before coming to consider some aspects of the school system itself.

He claims that he is "lugal-ari-a" which I take it as "uLukaL aariya" something semantically similar to Kamban's use of "aariya maintan" in Kamba RamayaNam, meaning a brave and noble warrior. The term " maintan" is derived from "maintu' bravery and which may be related "mey, moy" as in 'mey kiirtti " a sense which is different from 'mey" as truth also in extensive use in Sumerian. The word 'aariya' may be related Ta. aar meaning 'amazing' or 'praise worthy" a sense in which it is also available in Sumerian as in the following line of the same text.

324. ar-e sag li-bi-til-til-la-mu

My praise will never be finished

Ta. aarree caak-u ili bi tiir tiirra moo

This 'aar" may the root of such words as "arccanai' 'aaraatanai' etc which are taken as Sk.

Another interesting word is " nam-tar-ra" from which we probably have Ta. tarumam (tarmam) : the givenness sankriticed as "dharma". "nam-duga-tar-ra-me-en" means here "one who is given a good destiny" taking 'tar" as Ta. taru: to give. His good destiny is that he is given to be born as the true prince and excellent person " dumu-gi sa-zi-ta" where "zi-ta" also of wide occurrence is the probably the archaic form of 'catta' and hence "cattiya", the true also another word retained in Sk.

Part of this destiny underlying his birth as true prince is that he excelled in education in the elementary school , the e-dub-a , the house of tablets that he attended from his youth "tur-ra-mu-de" where both 'tur" in the sense of small and mu-de ( mutee) in the ablative sense of "from" are still in use in Tamil. The Ta. tur as in turumbu simply means small. Another word retained in Akkadian is sihru which is quite obviously Ta. siRu, ultimately to be derived from Ta. cil, cin which occurs also in Sumerian in the sense of 'small'. The root appears to be 'cillu', meaning to spilt and probably this is the reason a path is called in Su. sil-a and which corresponds with Ta. caalai .

The "a-am" is Ta. aa aam : where 'aa" means "becoming and "aam" the particle of emphasis as well as that of assent. . The 'dub" though it does not exist as 'tablet" but the sense is retained in "tuppu" a word polysemantic but one of the meanings of which is "clue" , something that requires deciphering, interpreting and so forth.

Thus we see here that Sulgi claims that in his youth or childhood he attended an elementary school 'il-tubbu" and that it was also part of the good destiny - dharma that he was blessed with.

e-dub-ba and Potiyil

Before we go further, perhaps I should point out that there is in Tamil a name for an educational institution somewhat similar in morphology with e-dub-ba ( Ta. il tuppu) viz. potiyil ( < potu-il), a term used to describe a place where Tamil writings were examined and studied. In some puranic lore this is also ascribed to Agastya, the patron of Tamil scholarship and who is the Tamilized version of the Sumerian Gestin-Anna, the Lady of Mystical wisdom, she who excels in Dream interpretations and who is skilful at getting the meanings.

The 'potu' may be a variant of "pOtu" meaning 'knowledge' and seems to underlie in the form of "put-in such terms as 'putti", 'put-akam' "put-t-an" and so forth. Thus we can take 'potiyil" as a kind of place concerned with learning and that this was probably one of the terms the ancient Tamils used for academy or at least a place for learning.

We should recall here that Agastya is credited with writing about the grammar of Tamil language. Such mythologised accounts may be simply a vague historical memory of what transpired in the school system

The following lines shed immense light on the details of the school activities that are of immense historical interest.

Su. sar , Ta. caaRRu, caattiram etc.

Sulgi Hymn B

14. dub ki-en-gi -ki-uri-ka nam-dub-sar-ra mi-ni-zu
(And) on the tablets of Sumer and Akkad I learnt I learned the art of the scribe

15. nam-tur-ra ga-e gin-nam im nu-mu-sar
Of the young, none could write tablets like me

16. nam-dub-sar-ra ki nam-ku-zu-ba lu im-mi-DU.DU
People frequented the place of learning (to acquire) the scribal art

In these lines we have the occurrence 'sar' Ta. caaRRu in verbs and verbal nouns. As a verb we have "im .. sar" Ta. iyam .. caaRRu, meaning either writing or reading clay tablets. Th 'im' may be related Ta.aiyam: something fine and moist. From this caaRRu we have caattiram: literature , caattan, scholar and so forth. Note : ciit talai caattan : the scholar ( caattan) who is the prominent head. Perhaps the SK sastra , sastry and so forth are linked to this. We can also take "upanisad' as the Sumerian 'uppa-ni-saaRRu' i.e. utterances coming from above viz. mystical utterances. The changes of -RR- into -tt- is a well attested phenomena in Tamil phonology.

The NP, nam-dub-sar-ra (> Ta. tuppu caaRRunam) which literally stands for the skill of reading or writing tablets means here derivatively for 'learning ' as such and elsewhere noted also as gal-bi (Ta. kalvi) also meaning that which is recited. The phrase " nam-ku-zu-ba " could a variant of Ta. nanku cuuba where 'cuu' that forms the basis for such words as 'cuu-t-tiram" may also be the archaic form of Ta. col: to say, utter etc. The "zu-ba" may be a variant of 'zi-u-ba" : to get clarity i.e to understand. The word 'nanku" is still existent in Tamil and it means 'well'. The line 16 indicates that at that time there was wide interest among people from all walks of life in becoming skilful in writing and reading and that they frequented such educational institutions to acquire the required mastery.

The Sastra tradition of India and a class of brahmins who are called Sastries (Ta. caattan) may actually be a Dravidian institution, linked with the scribal art.

Dravidian cittu and Sk vittu

It appears that culturally the very important word of Vittai and Veetaa are ultimately Dravidian in origin

Su. sid Ta. sittu, vittu, viitai , veetaa etc.

17. zi-zi-i ga-ga sid-nig-sid-de / zag im-mi-til-til
And striving and toiling went through their course in all the science of numbers

The most important term here is 'sid-nig-sid" wrongly translated I think, as the science of numbers. We can take it as Ta. sittu-nika- sittu where it can mean "knowledge all knowledge" or "knowledge, the excellent knowledge". The 'nig' is retained as Ta. nika, niva meaning very tall or large and derivatively " an immense variety , all kinds" or" the lofty" etc. In the sense of 'final' or 'highest" we have it in the technical term in Logic 'nika-manam" meaning the final or conclusive measurement.

In many other Sumerian texts on incantations the word 'sid' occurs in the sense of 'chanting, reciting " and so forth.

In Tamil we have the term 'cittu" and 'cettu' in a variety of meanings quite often mixed with magic. The word 'citti' means some kind of extraordinary attainment or simply attainments with 'putti" standing for the processes that make it possible. We have also 'cittar' with a large range of meanings: magician, physician, philosopher and so forth. From cittu we have vittu, vittai with the disintegration of the initial 's-' that is also a frequent phenomena in Tamil phonology. From this we can see thegenesis 'veeta" meaning the texts or hymns that are recited, that which embodies the vittai ( Sk vidya)

Related to this is Ta. cettu , meaning to think , reflect and so forth and from which we have cintanai: thoughts, cittam: will or a part of the mind concerned with willing.

Thus we can see that 'sid' originally meant what children do in reading the clay tablets, i.e. reciting and which was also used in the sense of 'chanting" when it came to the magical incantations.

To continue 3

The Assemblies in Sumerian and Dravidian-4

Su, dug-pu-uh-ru-um ki Ta. Tuukku porUum kiiz: Place for verbal debates

The notion of arasavai, an assembly in the Palace and where the King holds counsel appears to be a development of the Ur-saba, the village assembily extended now to the political unit of the Kingdom be it a city state or a nation of several such city states We find mention of this in Sulgi’s MutarIbiyam (Hymn B) (c. 2000 BC.). The following lines, devoted to a description of how Sulgi ruled the state are evidences for this.

225 bu-uh-ru-um ki nam-tar-re-de ( In the assembly where decisions were taken)

226. sagub-e-ne ad-gi-gi mu-un-za/ enim dug-dug mu-un-zu ( I taught the governors how to deliberate, suggesting the apposite words)

Tamil.226 porUum kiiz tarumam ede (At the place of dialogue where dharma was established)

பொரூஉம் கீழ் தருமம் இடே

Tamil. Saakuppinee aadu miimii mun-cuuva/enem tuukku tukku muncuuv. ( Among those sat in the assembly, I encouraged continuous dialogue, encourage free expression of thoughts)

சா குப்பினே ஆடு மீமீ முன்சூவ/ எனெம் தூக்கு தூக்கு முன்சூவ

Here the ‘bu-uh-ru-um ki’ more fully as below: dug pu-uh-ru-um ki is the Tamil tuukku porUum kiiz, a place where those present exchange among themselves, have verbal disputes combats etc and which means entering into debates, dialogues and discussions. This perhaps is the assembly of the King where he holds counsel with the important people of the state and who are made to sit (gub) or be members. What is interesting is that it is considered the place where dialogues were held so that JUSTICE or nam-tar-re (> Ta. tarmam> Sk. Dharma) was upheld. It is also interesting to note that Sulgi claims that he encouraged untrammeled and extensive and free expression of thoughts (enem tuukku tuuku). Thus it is clear that what went out as the major political decision was not the will of the King but rather the collective decision of the assembly and this more as an expression of Dharma than the will of the people. The free dialogues, debates and discussions among the members of the assembly were seen as the way in which the transpersonal DHARMA or Justice comes to hold in the affairs of the state.

The Assembly of the Celestial Beings.

It is interesting to note that the SumeroTamils saw the functioning of the celestial beings and who regulate the affairs of the world as a whole also function along the same lines but under the leadership of An. This may be a case of projecting into the metaphysical something that is social. The following lines taken from the account of the deluge is evidence for this.

10. gestu-[tuk-a-mu] ( my wise one)su-me-a (by our hand)a-ma-ru .............

  • Ta. kestu tuukku moocuul meya amaru ( What I tell you is this: there will be a flood enveloping everything)

gestu Ta; akastu, akattu: knowledge, understanding;su Ta. cuuz: to envelope; a-ma-ru Ta. amuri : waters)

11. numun-nam-galu ( the seed of mankind) ha-lam-e-de (to destroy)............. di-til-la ( is the judgement)

  • Ta. numuL kaallunam alamidee... viti tiira ( To destroy everything living .. is the final judgment)

(numun Ta. numuL, muLai: that which sprouts;nam-galu Ta. kaal: to stay, to stand; kaallunam: that which are;ha-lam Ta. alam: to destroy as in alam-koolam etc; di Ta. viti: judgment : til-la Ta. tiira: final)

12.dug-pu-uh-ru-[um-dingir-ri-e-ne-ka] (the word of the assembly [of the gods]

  • Ta. tukku porUum tingirinee akam ( taken in the assembly of the gods)

pu-uh-ru-um Ta. porUum: to contact , combat, discuss etc;(a) -ka Ta. akam: inside)

13. du(g)-dug-gaan [en-lil-la] ..........(the command of Anu and Enlil ..........)

  • Ta. tuuk-tuukka aaN eeNliilla ........... (These are the words of An and Enlil....)

( dug Ta. tuukku: to sing, and genitive case marker "-a " in Enlil-la makes it the words of An and Enlil)

Here we have the same word for assembly but more clearly spelt out: dug-pu-uh-ru-um ki but that of the great celestial beings, dingir-ri-e-ne, the teevar inam. The destruction of the world with deluge is the di-til-la (viti tiira) the final decision of An and Enlil and which also means that after considering several possibilities, perhaps suggested by the lesser gods, the final decision is taken by the Great Gods An and Enlil, who survive now as Siva and VishNu.

Dialogues Debates Democracy and Dharma(Justice)

These examples clearly show that the democratic notion of coming to a collective decision after discussing a problem extensively in an assembly meant solely for that, permeated not only the Ur Saba, the village assembly, the Assembly of the King but also the Celestial World. The sabai was the PorUum kiiz, the place for encountering or even combating so that as many views as possible emerge to the surface and after considering all a decision is made and which also turns out to be upholding the Dharma, the tarmam but here meaning JUSTICE.

Thus the Dravidian (and hence Indian) notion of democracy is seen as a social institution where not the individual or collective will but rather the transcendental principle of Dharma is allowed to rule and regulate the affairs of the state and that it is a way of realizing the functional features of the divine world itself.

We must recall here the social institution of Paddi ManRam, that gets mentioned even during the CaGkam times and which lasts to this day, appears to be connected with this Sumerian institution. The Paddi ManRam of CaGkam and post CaGkam period was a debating centre where scholars of different religious and philosophical views will debate out and seek out victory in such debates. Such debates alos called Tarkka, were part of major festivals and gets mentioned even in Tolkaappiyam

To continue-4

The Assemblies in Sumerian and Dravidian-5 (Final)

Su. galga: group, counsel etc Ta. Kazakam: an association, assembly etc

Below I have collected THREE different occurrences of this interesting word all with related meanings.


The Curse of Agade-42


gu-ti-um un kes-da nu-zu ( Gutians. A people who know no inhibitions)

Ta, kuutiyam uun kaddu naa suu ( “_

கூதியம் ஊன் கட்டு நா சூ

Kes-da Ta. kaddu : control, bonding etc.


dim-ma lu-ulu galga ur-ra SIG.ALAN ugu-bi ( with human instinct but canine intelligence and monkey's features)

Ta. tiimma uLu-uLu kazaka uura SIG.ALAN uugubi ( They have the appearance of humans , group together like dogd and have the featues of monkeyes)

தீம்ம உளு-உளு கழக ஓரிய SIG.ALAN ஊகுபி

Dim-ma Ta. tiiba : to appear Galga : Ta, kazakam: a group, association etc. Ur-ra : Ta. oori: jackals Ugu (monley) Ta, uukam: monkey


Below we have ‘galga’ occurring in the sense of ‘counsel’


Temple Hymn 21


e-galga-su erin-ku za-gin-na gi-sa-se ak-a ( House of widespread counsel, storehouse which eternally possesses silver and lapis lazuli)

Ta, il kazakam suu erin-koo saGkinna misai-see aka(m) ( An assembly of illuminating speech, with divine illuminations inside that are (precious) like conch shells )

இல் கழக(ம்) .சூ எரின்கோ சங்கின்ன மிசை-சே அகம்

e-galga-su : Ta il kazakam. ( the house of the assembly) Ta. kazakam: an assembly of scholars or people. erin-ku : Ta. erin-koo : divine illuminations. Ta. eri : fire, eri-n(i) : that which illuminates. Erin-koo : deep metaphysical illuminations. za-gin-na : Ta. saGkinna : white(pure) like the conch shells. Ta. saGku: conch shell gi-sa-se : Ta. misaim-see: The ‘-see' is a locative suffix with the meaning ‘at”. This makes ‘gi-sa' a place, a location and since ‘g' is also read as ‘m' it is rendered as ‘mi-sai' meaning above or inside. The word ‘mii-misai' ( above the place ) is still in use. ak-a Ta.. akam : inside etc


Below we have another occurrence but where the meaning given may require revisions.

Kes Temple Hymn 9

2. [e...ku]r-gal (d)en-lil-le nam-man-ni gal tar-re ( Temple ... whose fate is grandly determined by the great mountain Enlil)

  • [il... kun]Ru-kaL eenliillee naamannee kaal tarree ( Temple , standing like a great mountain, and whose fame is given to be there by Enlil Himself)

( nam-man Ta. naamam: fame (retained in Sk. naamam: name and fame); gal tar-re Ta. kaal taru-ee: giving there to be )

3. a-nun-gal (d) a-nun-ke-ne un galga sum-mu (Temple of the Anunna-gods possessing great power, which gives wisdom to the people)

  • Ta. aal nunkaal aanunnaki ina un kazaka cummu ( Temple of the heavenly beings with great power and where there is an assembly promoting deep reflections)

a-nun-gal Ta. aal nun kaL ; un Ta. un : to think deeply ; galga Ta. Kazakam : an assembly : . sum-mu Ta. Suma-t-tal : to carry; Ea. Ummu: to conjoin


Thus Su. galga is certainly Ta. Kazakam where it means an aggregate of people. An assembly, an association etc. Howver in the Sumerian times it appears that there was a Divine Counsel in the important where the various gods promoted deep reflections *Su, un Ta. Un: to think deeply) so that metaphysical insights of a profound kind were enjoyed by the people.



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இப்பக்கம் கடைசியாக 11 ஜனவரி 2011, 11:06 மணிக்குத் திருத்தப்பட்டது. இப்பக்கம் 3,308 முறைகள் அணுகப்பட்டது.